History of Pen and Gesture Computing:
Annotated Bibliography in On-line Character Recognition,
Pen Computing, Gesture User Interfaces and Tablet and Touch Computers

(DOI: 10.13140/2.1.3018.8322)
Copyright © 20190321 21:34:54 EDT

This posting of an annotated bibliography on gesture user interfaces, on-line character recognition (a.k.a. dynamic character recognition, a.k.a. pen and touch computing), both hardware and software, has been a continuing work-in-progress since the 1980s. It includes information on related application topics, such as digital rights management (DRM), portable computing, cryptographic communications, and biometric authentication. I am posting it as a service to those with interest in the field. It may also be of special interest to anyone investigating any of the areas of digitizer tablets, touchscreens, character recognition, touch/gesture user interfaces, multi-touch computing, passive and active tactile feedback, touch and proximity sensors, augmented reality, haptics, context-dependent intrepretation of user input, and applications including the same. It covers the time period from approximately 1891 (first electronic tablet) through 1914 (first gesture/handwriting-recognition input system) to the present day.

Like any subject, the focus has evolved and modulated over the decades, and this bibliography follows these topics both forward in time, and historically back in time. Tablets and touchscreens are have evolved into pointing, locating and gesturing sensors with three-dimensional input with six degrees of freedom and more. Earlier work on handwriting recognition, with handwritten symbols sometimes used for command input as "gestures", has evolved to be part of a much broader range of gestures, including in-air and 3D gestures. Command user interfaces have merged with direct manipulation, and then with graphical user interfaces and virtual reality. Authenticating handwritten signatures has evolved to additional forms of biometrics. Haptic feedback has evolved from "simple" force-feedback to encompass audio, tactile, and visual signaling. Virtual reality systems seem to have waxed and waned, and waxed again.

It is, indeed, a rich and complicated field, in all its aspects.

Jean Renard Ward For additional information on Rueters-Ward Services,
including my CV for consulting or as an expert witness:
URL:   http://www.ruetersward.com.)
e-mail: jrward@alum.mit.edu
Google Voice: 617-600-4095

References from the approximate years 1987 to 1988.

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  • [Kahan87] Kahan, S., Pavlidis, Theo, and Baird, H. S. "On the Recognition of Printed Characters of Any Font and Size", IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol PAMI-9 No 2, March 1987, pp 274-288
  • [KahnRE88a] Kahn, Robert E. and Cert, Vinton G. "The Digital Library Project. Vol. 1: The World of Knowbots (draft): An Open Architecture for a Digital Library System and A Plan for Its Development", Corporation for National Research Initiatives NRI, March 1988
  • [KakAC88a] Kak, Avinash C. and Slaney, Malcom "Prinicples of Computerized Tomographic Imaging", IEEE Press, 1988. Electronic re-print 1999
  • [Kamal88] Kamel, Khaled and Iman, Ibrahim "A computerized transcription system for cursive shorthand writing", Proc. IEEE SouthEastCon, Knoxville, Tennessee, pp. 336-339, April 1988
  • [Kankaanpaa88] Kankaanpaa, A. "FIDS - A Flat-Panel Interactive Display System", Laboratory of Information Processing Science, Helsinki Univ. Technology, 02150 Espoo 15, Finland, February 1987: IEEE CGA, Vol 8 No 3, March 1988, pp 71-82
  • [Kaplan88] Kaplan, Samuel J., King, Jonathan J., and Sagalowicz, Daniel "Knowledge based processor for application programs using conventional data processing capabilities", US Patent 4,783,752, November 8, 1988
  • [Kashioka88] Kashioka, S., Shima, Y., Miyatake, T., and Ejiri, M. "Method for Producing a Standard Pattern for Pattern Matching", US Patent 4,783,831, November 8, 1988
  • [KayA87a] Kay, Alan "Doing With Images Makes Symbols - Communicating with Computers", Video: Distinguished Lecture Series, Apple Computer, 1987
  • [KerrickDD88a] Kerrick, D. D. and Bovik, A. C. "Microprocessor-based Recognition of Handprinted Characters from a Tablet Input", Pattern Recognition, Vol 21 No 5, 1988, pp 525..537 (original copy lost) (abstract only)
  • [KimJ87a] Kim, J. "Gesture Recognition by Feature Analysis", IBM Res. Rpt. RC 12472 (Log #56035) 1/28/87, IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, PO Box 704, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598
  • [KimJ88a] Kim, Joonki "On-line gesture recognition by feature analysis", Proc. Vision Interface '88, Edmonton, June 6-10, 1988, pp 51-55
  • [Kimpan87] Kimpan, C., Itoh, A., and Kawanishi, K. "Fine classification of printed Thai character recognition using the Karhunen-Loe've expansion", IEE Proc., Vol 134 Pt E No 5, September 1987, pp 257-264
  • [Kinoshita88] Kinoshita, Akiyoshi "Character Input System", US Patent 4,724,423, February 9, 1988
  • [KishiH88a] Kishi, Hajimu and Tanaka, Kunio "Graphic display method for displaying a perspective view of an object on a CRT", US Patent 4,754,269, June 28, 1988
  • [KobayashiK88] Kobayashi, K., Sakurai, A., and Sato, G. "Character Recognition Method and System Capable of Recognizing Slant Characters", US Patent 4,757,551, July 12, 1988
  • [KobayashiT88a] Kobayashi, Tadashi "Graphical display apparatus having a coordinate correction circuit", US Patent 4,737,773, April 12, 1998
  • [KomataT88a] Komata, Takamitsu "Portable electronic device", Japanese laid-open patent application JPH01271796A, October 30, 1989
  • [Kondo87] Kondo, Shozo "Some Considerations on Stroke-Structure of Characters Using a Model of Handwriting Process", Proc. Third Intl. Symp. on Handwriting and Computer Applications, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Canada, 1987, pp 72-73
  • [KramerSM88a] Kramer, Steven M. "On Incorporating Access Control Lists into the UNIX Operating System", Proc. USENIX UNIX Security Workshop, August 23..30, 1988, pp. 38..48
  • [KreinPT88a] Krein, Philip T. and Meadows, R. David "The Electroquasistatics of the Capacitive Touch Panel", IEEE Conf. Proc. 1988, Reference 88CH2565-0/88/0000-171
  • [KruegerMW88a] Krueger, Myron W.; Hinrichsen, Katrin; Gionfridd, Tom; and Sonnanburg, Joan "Videoplace '88", Studio in the Museum of Natural History, Vernon CT. June 10, 1988
  • [KurlanderD88a] Kurlander, David and Bier, Eric A. "Graphical Search and Replace", ACM Computer Graphics, Vol 22 No 4, August 1988, 113-120
  • [KurlanderD88b] Kurlander, David and Feiner, Steven "Editable Graphical Histories", IEEE 1988 Workshop on Visual Languages, Pittsburgh, PA, October 1988. pp 127..134
  • [Kurta87a] Kurta Corporation "IS/PenMouse", Kurta Corp., 1987
  • [Kurta88a] Kurta Corporation "Kurta out-does the competition with Architecture Templates", Kurta Corp., 1988
  • [Kurta88b] Kurta Corporation "Kurta out-smarts the mouse", Kurta Corp., 1988
  • [Kurtzberg87] Kurtzberg, J. M. "Feature Analysis for Symbol Recognition by Elastic Matching", IBM Jnl. Research and Development, Vol. 31 (1) (1987) 91--95
  • [KustanovichY87a] Kustanovich, Yosef "Surface-area pressure transducer and line-selection circuit for use therewith", US Patent 4,644,801, February 24, 1987
  • [Kuzunuki87] Kuzunuki, Soshiro, Shojima, HHiroshi, Yokoyama, Takanori, Fukunaga, Yashushi, and Hirasawa, Kotaro "Method for Designating a Recognition Mode in a Hand-Written Character/Graphic Recognizer", US Patent 4,680,804, August 14, 1987
  • [KwokPCK88a] Kwok, P. C. K. "A Thinning Algorithm by Contour Generation", CACM, Vol 31 No 11, November 1988, pp 1314-1324
  • [LaLondeW88a] LaLonde, Wilf and Pugh, John "Smalltalk: Graphics Through the Looking Glass", JOOP, August 1988, pp. 52-68
  • [LakinF87a] Lakin, Fred "Visual Grammars for Visual Languages", Proc. AAAI-87, pp. 683-688
  • [LapeyreJM87a] Lapeyre, James M. "Electro-Optical Position Determining System", US Patent 4,688,833, August 25, 1987
  • [LeeS88a] Lee, Seongwhan, and Kim, Jin H. "Automatic verification of seal imprints using attributed stroke graph matching", Proc. Intl. Conf. on Computer Processing of Chinese and Oriental Languages, 1988, pp 66-70
  • [LeeS88b] Lee, Seongwhan, and Kim, Jin H. "Recognizing hand-drawn symbols in engineering drawings", Artificial Intelligence in Engineering: Robotics and Processes", Computational Mechanics, Southampton, 1988, pp 179-200
  • [LeggettJJ88a] Leggett, John L. and Williams, Glen "Verifying Identity via Keystroke Characteristics", Intl. Jnl. of Man-Machine Studies vol 28 no 1, January 1988, pp 67..76 (abstract only)
  • [Leung87] Leung, C. H., Cheung, Y. S., and Wong, Y. L. "A Knowledge-Based Stroke-Matching Method for Chinese Character Recognition", IEEE Trans. Systems, Man, and Cybernetic, Vol SMC-17 No 6, November 1987, pp 993-1003
  • [Licklider88] Licklider, J. C. R. "Interview with J. C. R. Licklider, Conducted by William Aspray and Authur Norberg", 28 October, 1988. Charles Babbage Institute, Center for the History of Information Processing, Univ. Minnesota, Minneapolis. Available at www.cs.utexas.edu/users/umair/cs370/interviews/oh150jcl.rtf
  • [Linus87a] Linus Technologies "LINUS (tm) Write-Top User's Guide", Linus Technologies Inc, 1889 Preston White Dr., Reston, VA 22091
  • [Linus87b] Linus Technologies "Linus Write-Top / TRW Write-Top: Linus 1000", Posting at http://oldcomputers.net, fetched 2014
  • [Linus88a] Linus Technologies "Linus plans tiered Write-Top channel strategy", Product announcement for Write-Top handwriting recognition product, Computer and Software News, June 13, 1988
  • [Linus88b] Linus Technologies "Equipment/Device: Linus Technologies Write-Top, ca. 1988", Linus Technologies (physical device)
  • [Linus88c] Linus Technologies "Linus Just-Write and Just-Write II Software Reference Manual", Linus Technologies, Inc, 1988
  • [Linus88d] Linus Technologies "Portable Computer Runs on Handwriting", Insight Magazine, August 22 1988
  • [LittlePD88a] Little, Paul D. "Audio/telephone communication system for verbally handicapped", US Patent 4,785,420, November 15, 1988
  • [LiuzzoJG87a] Liuzzo, James G. and Proettea, William J. "Keyboard with arrays of function keys", US Patent 4,698,618, October 6, 1987
  • [LuP87] Lu, P. -Y. "professional resume", for work in on-line handwriting recognition
  • [Lukis87] Lukis, L. J. "Method and Apparatus for Correcting X-Y Position Measurements", US Patent 4,679,241, July 7, 1987
  • [MaarseFJ88a] Maarse, F. J., Janssen, H. J. J., and Dexel, F. "A special pen for an XY-tablet", preliminary manuscript, Univ. Nijmegen, Department of Experimental Psychology, Montessorilaan 3, PO Box 9104, 6500 HE Nijmegen, The Netherlands, 1987. Published 1988 in "Human-Computer Interaction: Psychonomic Aspects", Springer Verlag, pp. 353-360
  • [Machart88] Machart, Beverly H., and Wang, John S. "Freehand Drawing Containing Invisible Lines", US Patent 4,757,549, July 12, 1988
  • [MaedaK87] Maeda, Kenichi, and Nitta, Tsuneo "Pattern Recognition Apparatus and Method for Making Same", US Patent 4,651,289, March 17, 1987
  • [MakkuniR87a] Makkuni, R. "A gestural representation of the process of composing Chinese temples", IEEE CGA, Vol 7 No 12, December 1987, pp 45-61
  • [MallicoatSW88a] Mallicoat, Samuel W. "Graphic input system", US Patent 4,777,329, October 11, 1988
  • [Malzbender87] Malzbender, T. "Permuted Trace Ordering Allows Low-Cost, High-Resolution Graphics Input", Hewlett-Packard Journal, June 1987, pp 4-7
  • [Mandler87] Mandler, Eberhard "Advanced Preprocessing Technique for On-Line Script Recognition of Nonconnected Symbols", Proc. 3rd Int. Symp. on Handwriting and Computer Applications, pp. 64-66, July 1987
  • [ManessWL88a] Mannes, William L.; Golden, Robert F.; Benjamin, Michael H.; and Podoloff, Robert M. "Contact Sensor for Measuring Dental Occlusion", US Patent 4,734,034, March 29, 1988
  • [MatthewsHG88] Matthews, Henry G.; Zalenski, Thomas; Barbetti, Jamie L.; and Mletzko, Al "Menu for a Charge Ratio Digitizer", US Patent 4,788,386, November 29, 1988
  • [MatzkeKE88a] Matzke, Karl E. and Schick, Paul W. "Touch Activated Control Method and Apparatus", US Patent 4,736,191, April 8, 1988
  • [McArthurD87a] McArthur, David; Stasz, Cathleen; and Hotta, John Y. "Learning Problem-Solving Skills in Algebra", RAND Note N-2595-NSF, Prepared for The National Science Foundation, May 1987 (abstract only)
  • [McAvinneyP88a] McAvinney, Paul "Method and apparatus for isolating and manipulating graphic objects", US Patent 4,746,770, May 24, 1988
  • [McCaskillRA88a] McCaskill, R. A., Wang, J. S., and Repass, J. T. "Printed document processing", US Patent 4,739,314, April 19, 1988
  • [MelBW88a] Mel, Barlett W.; Omohundro, Stephen M.; Robison, Arch D.; Skiena, Steven S.; Thearling, Kurt H.; Wolfram, Stephen; and Luke, Young T. "Tablet: The Personal computer of the Year 2000", Communications of the ACM, June 1988, pp 638-646; also Report No UIUCDCS-R-88-1406/UILU-ENG-88-1711, U. Ill. at Urbana-Champaign, February 1988
  • [Microsoft87a] Microsoft Corporation "Microsoft Excel Arrays, functions and Macros", Microsoft Corp., 1987 (hardcopy book)
  • [Microsoft87b] Microsoft Corporation "Reference to Microsoft Word Word Processing Program Version 3.0 for the Apple Macintosh", Microsoft Corp., 1987 (hardcopy manual)
  • [Microsoft87c] Microsoft Corporation "Learning Microsoft Word: Word Processing Program Version 3.0 for the Apple Macintosh", Microsoft Corp., 1987 (hardcopy book)
  • [Microsoft88a] Microsoft Corporation "Descriptions of Expert and Standard Mouse Menus", http://support.microsoft.com, article 23837 / Q23837, approximate date 1988
  • [MiletzkiU87a] Miletzki, U; Doster, W.; Fogaroli, G.; Lobl, H; and Moulds, P. "Paper Interfaces for Office Systems", ESPIRIT '86, pp. 373-397, 1987
  • [Mishima88] Mishima, T., Kanasaki, M., Takatoo, M., and Ota, H. "Half-tone image recognition / Method and apparatus for recognizing pattern of halftone image", European Patent 287995, October 26, 1988
  • [Mochinaga88] Mochinaga, N., Moto, T., and Ogata, Y. "Pen-type Character Recognition Apparatus", US Patent 4,751,741, June 14, 1988
  • [Morishita87] Morishita, T., Ooura, M., and Ishii, Y. "A Kanji Recognition Method Detecting Incorrectness in Writing", Proc. 1987 Intl. Conf. on Computer Processing of Chinese and Oriental Languages, pp 67-74
  • [MullerMJU88a] Muller, Michael J. "Multifunctional Cursor for Direct Manipulation User Interfaces", Proc. CHI '88, pp. 89-94
  • [MurphyAS88a] Murphy, alan S. "Automatic highlighting in a raster graphics display system", US Patent 4,725,829, February 16, 1988
  • [MyersBA87a] Myers, Brad A. "Creating Interaction Techniques by Demonstration", IEEE CGA, September 1987, pp. 51-60
  • [MyersBA88a] Myers, Brad A. "The Garnet User Interface Development Environment: A Proposal", Carnegie-Mellon Univ. Tech. Rpt. CMU-CS-88-153, September 1988
  • [NCSC87a] National Computer Security Center "Trusted Network Interpretation", NCSC-TG-005 Version 1, Library No. S228,526, 31 July 1987, Gallagher, Patrick R. Jr. Director. Available at http://csrc.nist.gov (2015)
  • [NYTimes88a] Lewis, Peter "The Executive Computer -- Exotic Gizmos for Aiding Workers", November 20, 1988, New York Times
  • [Nadler87] Nadler, Morton "private communication with Morton Nadler", August, 1987
  • [Nakamura87a] Nakamura, Shoichiru, and Kable, Robert "Electrographic System and Method", US Patent 4,650,926, March 17, 1987
  • [NationalPhysicalLaboratory87] National Physical Laboratory NPL "Electronic Paper: The Electronic Paper Collaboration", National Physical Laboratory NPL, Division of Information Technology and computing, Tedding, Middlesex TW11 0LW, United Kingdom
  • [Nestor87] Nestor, Inc. "NestorWriter Product Description", available from Nestor Inc., One Richmond Square, Providence RI 02906. Cited in --->"Computing with Neural Networks", High Technology, Vol 7 No 5, May 1987, pp 28-29
  • [Nestor88] Nestor, Inc "Press/correspondence file on Nestor, Inc.", (personal correspondence)
  • [NielsenJ87a] Nielsen, Jakob "CHI+GI '87 Trip Report", www.useit.com/papers/tripreports/chi87.html
  • [NielsenJ88a] Nielsen, Jakob "CHI '88 Trip Report", www.useit.com/papers/tripreports/chi88.html
  • [NormanDA88a] Norman, Donald A. "The Design of Everyday Things", Basic Books (1st edition, 1988), revised with new preface 2002
  • [Numonics88a] Numonics Incorporated "#2200 Digitizer Pad Technical Information", Available from Numonics Inc.
  • [Numonics88b] Numonics Incorporated "CADCommand product information", Available from Numonics Inc., Montgomeryville PA
  • [Numonics88c] Numonics Incorporated/Terminal Display Systems Limited "MAX - Multi-Axis Input Digitizer", "ZedPEN product literature", Terminal Display Systems, Lower Philips Road, Blackburn England BB1 5TH, 1988
  • [Numonics88d] Numonics Incorporated "Numonics Corporation covers computer graphics from architecture to zoology", Numonics Corp., 1988
  • [OehmanCG87a] Öhman, Carl Gustaf "A touch indicating device", European Patent Application EP0229601A1, July 22, 1987
  • [OoiK87a] Ooi, K., Hidai, K., Kurosawa, Y., and Nakamura, Y. "Method and Device for Handwritten Letter Recognition", US Patent 4,685,142, August 4, 1987
  • [OritaM87a] Orita, M., Kobayashi, Y., and Kuboo, Y. "Tree-structure recognition dictionary preparation system", US Patent 4,658,429, April 14, 1987
  • [OritaM87b] Orita, M., Mishima, T., and Kobayashi, Y. "System and Method for Preparing a Recognition Dictionary", US Patent 4,682,365, July 21, 1987
  • [Ovonics88] Ovonic Imaging Systems OIS, Inc. "E-Z image and "OIS Telepad" product literature, 1988", 1896 Barrett Street, Troy, MI 48084, 313-362-3140
  • [PadulaMJ88a] Padula, Michael J. and Matthews, Henry G. "Digitizer Stylus with Pressure Transducer", US Patent 4,786,764, November 22, 1988
  • [PalayAJ88a] Palay, Andrew J.; Hansen, Wilfred J.; Kazar, Michael L.; Sherman, Mark; Wadlow, Maria G.; Neuendorffer, Thomas P.; Stern, Zalman; Bader, Mils, Peters, Thom "The Andrew Toolkit - An Overview", Usenix Conf., Dallas, Texas January 1988. Also Carnegie-Mellon Univ. Tech. Rpt. CMU-ITC-88-06
  • [PearsonG87a] Pearson, G. and Weiser, M. "Exploratory Evaluations of Two Versions of a Foot-Operated Cursor-Positioning Device in a Target-Selection Task", poster paper, CHI+GI 87 Conf., Boston, Massachusetts, April 1987. Authors' address: Heterogeneous Systems Lab, Univ. Maryland, College Park, Maryland
  • [PeltzCL87a] Peltz, Curtis L.; Martin George F.; and Blake, Peter H. "Method and apparatus for single source entry of analog and digital data into a computer", US Patent 4,716,542, December 29, 1987
  • [PenMouse88a] PenMouse Technologies "Equipment/Device: PenMouse device, ca. 1988", PenMouse, PenMouse Technologies (physical device)
  • [Pencept88a] Pencept "PenPad Digitizer and Intelligent Tablets -- Using Artificial Intelligence to Make Your Computer Faster and Easier to Use", Pencept division of Numonics, Inc., 39 Green Street, Waltham, Massachusetts 02154, 1988
  • [PersonalWriter88a] Personal Writer Inc. "Personal Writer PW15 SL User Manual", Personal Writer Inc., 1801 Avenue of the Starts Suite 507, Los Agneles CA 90067 (hardcopy book)
  • [Phillips87] Phillips, M. "Several simple tests can help you choose the correct digitizer", Computer Technology Review, Vol VII No 1, January 1987
  • [PierK88a] Pierk, Ken; Bier, Eric; and Stone, Maureen "An Introduction to Gargoyle: An Interactive Illustration Tool", Proc. Intl. Conf. on Electronic Publishing, Document Manipulation and Typography, Nice France, April 1988, p. 223-238
  • [Platshon88] Platshon, Mark "Acoustic touch technology adds a new input dimension", Computer Design, March 15, 1988, pp 89-93
  • [Pobgee88a] Pobgee, P. J. "Prototype System for Interactive Input of Cursive Information", National Physical Laboratory, Teddington (England), Division of Information Technology and Computing, Report No NPL-DITC-125/88, 1988 (abstract only)
  • [Pobgee88b] Pobgee, P. J. "EPT, a Dynamic Tutorial for Introducing New Users to Electronic Paper", National Physical Laboratory, Teddington (England), Division of Information Technology and Computing, Report No NPL-DITC-134/88, 1988 (abstract only)
  • [PotosnakKM88a] Potosnak, Kathleen M. "Keys and Keyboards", Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction, Elsevier, 1988, Ch. 21
  • [PotterR88a] Potter, R., Weldon, L., and Shneiderman, B. "Improving the accuracy of touch screens: An experimental evaluation of three strategies", Proc. CHI Conf., Washington, DC, May 15-19, 1988. Published by the Assoc. for Computing Machinery, New York, 1988, pp 27..32
  • [RabinMO88a] Rabin, Michael O. and Tygar, J. D. "An Integrated Toolkit for Operating System Security", Harvard Univ. Aiken Computation Laboratory, Tech. Rpt. TR-05-87R, August, 1988
  • [RaymondDR87a] Raymond, Darrell R. "Using Dispatchers to Control Process Structures", Univ. Waterloo CompSci Res. Rpt. CS-87-37
  • [ReaganJJ88a] Reagan, John J.; Parks, Peggy J.; Miller, Nancy L.; and Beckman, Robert L. "Fabrication of a multilayer conductive pattern on a dielectric substrate", US Patent 4,774,127, September 27, 1988
  • [Reilly87] Reilly, Douglas, L., Scofield, Christopher, Elbaum, Charles, and Cooper, Leon, N. "Learning System Architectures Composed of Multiple Learning Modules", Proc. IEEE First Annual Intl. Conf. on Neural Networks, June, 1987, Vol II, pp 495-503
  • [Reilly88] Reilly, Douglas L, Scofield, Christopher, Gouin, Philip R., Rimey, Raymond, Collins, Edward A., and Ghosh, Sushmito "An Application of a Multiple Neural Network Learning System to Industrial Part Inspection", to be presented at ISA/88, Houston, Texas
  • [RevankarS87a] Revankar, Shriram "Computer Drafting of Hand-Drawn Line Sketches", Master's Thesis, Computer Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, August 1987. PR-MS-87-821
  • [Rhyne87] Rhyne, J. "Dialogue Management for Gestural Interfaces", Computer Graphics, Vol 21 No 2, April 1987, pp 137-142. Also IBM Res. Rpt. RC 12244, 1986
  • [RodgersJL87a] Rodgers, James L. and Waterbury, Charles A. "Low power high resolution digitizing system with cordless pen-mouse", US Patent 4,672,154, June 9, 1987
  • [RosenbergD87a] Rosenberg, D. "Internal and external visual metaphor in the design of a smart product user-interface", Proc. Interface '87, pp. 149..156
  • [RosenbergJM87a] Rosenberg, Jerry M. "Dictionary of Computers, Information Processing and Telecommunications, Second Edition", Wiley, 1987 (hardcopy book)
  • [RossD88a] Ross, Doug "A Personal View of the Personal Work Station - Some Firsts in the Fifties", "A history of personal workstations", ACM Press, 1988, pp. 51..114
  • [RubinT88a] Rubin, Tony "User Interface Design for Computer systems", Ellis Horwood Books in Computer Science, U. of London, 1988 (hardcopy book)
  • [RubineD88a] Rubine, Dean and McAvinney, Paul "The Videoharp", Proc. ICMC 88, pp. 49-55
  • [Rympalski87] Rympalski, William P., Herstein, James S., Ritenour, Roger L. "Electronic Sketch Pad", US Patent 4,639,720, January 27, 1987
  • [SAC87a] Science Accessories Corporation "GP-7 Grafbar Mark II Operator's Manual", Science Accessories Corp., 1987, 970 King's Highway West, Southport, Connecticut 06490
  • [SAC87b] Science Accessories Corporation "QUESTOR III Model GP-9 two-dimensional sonic digitizer -- large areas -- projected images", Science Accessories Corp., 1987, 970 King's Highway West, Southport, Connecticut 06490
  • [SAC88a] Science Accessories Corporation "Capture / Create / Analyze / Direct with sonic digitizers", Science Accessories Corp., 1988, 970 King's Highway West, Southport, Connecticut 06490
  • [SIGSOFT87a] SIGSOFT "Anti-Skid Brakes", quoted from October 1986 issue of Road and Track, ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes, Vol 12 No 1, page 10, January, 1987
  • [SIGSOFT87b] SIGSOFT "Cause of the Mysterious Bay Area Rapid Transit Power Outage Identified", quoted from July 8, 1987 San Francisco Chronicle, ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes, Vol 12 No 4, page 4, January, 1987
  • [SIGSOFT87c] SIGSOFT "Actual Stock Price Fails Sanity Check", contributed by Mark Brader, ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes, Vol 12 No 4, page 4, October 1987
  • [SIGSOFT87d] SIGSOFT "BBC Documentary Filming Causes Library of Congress Computer Crashes", contributed by Howard C. Berkowitz, ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes, Vol 12 No 4, page 15, October 1987
  • [SIGSOFT88a] SIGSOFT "Runaway mouse problem in popular commercial WP program", contributed by Steven Jones, ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes, Vol 13 No 4, page 9, October 1988
  • [Saba87] SABA "Handscan product literature", Saba Technologies, Inc., 9300 S. W. Gemini Driver, Beaverton, Oregon, 97005, June 1987
  • [Satoh88] Satoh, Koji "Method of Character Recognition", US Patent 4,783,835, November 8, 1988
  • [Schoonard87] Schoonard, James W.; Gould, John D.; Bieber, Miriam; and Fusca, AAngie "A Behavioral Study of a Computer Hand Print Recognition System", IBM Res. Rpt. RC 12484 (Log #56157) 2/6/87, 1987, IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, PO Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598
  • [ScottWC87a] Scott, Walter C. "Signature Verification", US Patent 4,701,960, October 20, 1987
  • [Sejnowski87] Sejnowski, Terrance and Rosenberg, Charles "Parallel Networks that Learn to Pronounce English Text", Complex Systems, 1:145-168, (1987)
  • [Sekita88] Sekita, I., Toraichi, K., Mori, R., Yamamoto, K, and Yamada, H "Feature extraction of hand-written Japanese characters by spline functions for relaxation", Pattern Recognition, Vol 21 No 1, January 1988, pp 9-17
  • [SemioticsDesigners87a] Semiotics Designers "Handwriting recognition product outline: Correspondence file", 2980 Salem Drive, Santa Clara, California 95051, 1987
  • [SherrS88a] Sherr, Sol (Ed.) "Input Devices", Academic Press Inc., 1988, ISBN 0-12-639970-0 (electronic book)
  • [Shojima87] Shojima, H., Kuzunuki, J. S., and Hirasawa, K. "On-line pattern recognition for hand-written shapes", US Patent 4,653,107, March 24, 1987
  • [ShojimaH88a] Shojima, H., Mifune, T., Mori, J. and Kuzunuki, S. "Method and Apparatus for On-line Recognizing Handwritten Patterns", US Patent 4,718,103, January 5, 1988
  • [SilversteinA88a] Silverstein, Alan; McMahon, Bill; and Nuss, Greg "Adding Access Control Lists to Unix; or, How to Stop Worrying About All that Other Security Stuff and Love UNIX DACLMs", Hewlett-Packard Company, March 12, 1988 (submitted to /usr/group?)
  • [Sinha88] Sinha, R. M. K. and Prasada, B. "Visual Text Recognition Through Contextual Processing", Pattern Recognition, Vol 21 No 5, 1988, pp 463-479
  • [SklarewR88a] Sklarew, Ralph "Handwritten keyboard-less entry computer system", European Patent 254561a, 1 January 27, 1988
  • [Skylight88] Skylight Software, Incorporated "Handprints 2.0 product information", 323 Andover Street, Wilmington, Massachusetts 01887
  • [SmithMJ88a] Smith, Megan Joan "Tactile interface for three-dimensional computer-simulated environments--experimentation and the design of a brake-motor device", Master's thesis, M.I.T. Dept. of Mech. Eng., June 1988
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